The Foundations of Cryptography are the paradigms, approaches and techniques used to conceptualize, define and provide solutions to natural Cryptographic problems.

The surveys start by presenting some of the central tools; that is, computational difficulty (in the form of one-way functions), pseudorandomness, and zero-knowledge proofs. Based on these tools, they turn to the treatment of basic applications such as encryption and signature schemes as well as the design of general secure cryptographic protocols. The presentation assumes basic knowledge of algorithms, probability theory and complexity theory, but nothing beyond this.

- Foundations of Cryptography -
A Primer (2004).

This survey is more extensive than the previous ones available below and superseeds them as an introductory text. - The Foundations of Cryptography - An Essay (1997).

This essay was originally written for readers who have some familiarity with the basic problems of Cryptography (i.e., know the basic setting of encryption and signature schemes). The aim was to introduce such readers (who may even be very knowledgeable about the applied aspects of cryptography) to the rigorous foundations of the discipline. - Cryptography
and Cryptographic Protocols (2001).

The survey was originally intended for researchers in distributed computing, and assumes no prior familiarity with cryptography. The aim was to introduce such readers (who may know nothing about cryptography) to the basic paradigms, approaches, techniques and results that provide the foundations of the discipline. The original audience (distributed computing) is reflected in the extensive treatment of secure cryptographic protocols.

**Related Material available on-line**:
A webpage on Foundations of Cryptography,
including access to the following manuscripts (and more).

- Zero-Knowledge: A Tutorial (2002).
- Secure Multi-Party Computation (working draft) (1998).
- Foundations of Cryptography - Fragments of a Book (1995).
- Lecture Notes on Encryption, Signatures and Cryptographic Protocols (1989).

Back to the Foundations of Cryptography page or to Oded Goldreich's homepage.